Thursday, July 30, 2020
2012 Early Action Decision Date and Reactions - UGA Undergraduate Admissions 2012 Early Action Decision Date and Reactions For all of you who are waiting anxiously by your computer/mailbox, nervous about your Early Action decision, here is some good news. UGA is planning on releasing the EA decisions on the myStatus page on Friday, November 16 in the late afternoon (unless some serious problem arises, which I do not expect). Do not call/email/text/message asking for the exact time of late afternoon, as I cannot give an exact time. We will post a message here when it opens up. We are excited about this, and I am guessing you are as well, and hopefully it will allow for a little less nerve-wracking Thanksgiving break. One key: Do not have everyone in your family try to log in and see your decision! This will only slow down our system and might cause issues in accessing your record. In addition to the decisions being available on the myStatus page, letters will go out in the mail for Accepted, Deferred and Incomplete students. Freshman denial letters will not be mailed out, as almost all applicants see their decisions online, and we (along with a number of colleges) did not want to have a letter that only served to reinforce the negative feelings they might already have. Here are a few suggestions on how to react to the four different decisions: Admit: Celebrate with family, buy a lot of UGA gear to wear for the Thanksgiving break, but remember that not everyone has received a decision of admission, and so be a little more low key with friends and classmates. In other words, do not run up to you best friend during English class and scream I got into Georgia while 10-15 of your classmates are mentally throwing daggers into your back. In addition, be patient with the other parts of campus (commitment deposit, housing, the UGA myID system, etc.), as they might need a few days to take in your information. You will also receive materials in the mail as far as the next steps to take. Defer: This is the most challenging one, as these are applicants who are truly strong students, but we want to see more about them (as well as the rest of the applicant pool) before making a final decision. Please remember, this is not a denial at all, but instead a way for us to be able to review you in full, from your co-curricular activities, your essays, and your recommendations. As I usually state, defer is not a four letter word (even though you might feel this way), only a delay in an admission decision. This is your chance to let us know what you are like as an overall applicant. While this is probably not the answer you would like, I would suggest you treat it as a call-back for a second audition. Some roles have already been cast (or admitted), and we now want to look at you in more detail to see how you compare to the rest of the people auditioning (or applying). One of the worst things you can do is give up and not do the essays. The second worst thing is to call us up and berate us for not admitting you. We will be happy to talk to people, but make sure to communicate in a positive tone, understand that we cannot talk about other applicants, and please remember that defer does not mean denial. In past years, about half of the deferred applicants who completed part II were later admitted. Each year, about 1000 deferred students do not complete part II, so we never even have a chance to even review them! If you are serious about UGA, take the time to complete your application, and then be patient as we review all of these files throughout Jan., Feb. and March. When completing part II (the essays), you do NOT need to do an entirely new application, and there is no new/additional application fee. You just need to go to your myStatus page after decisions are out, complete part II (the essays), and hit submit. As well, get a teacher from an academic area to write your teacher recommendation. Remember, UGA is in no way done with the overall freshman admission process. We still have a long way to go, with a great deal of files to read and admission offers to make, so make sure you do your best to show UGA what you are like as an overall student/citizen. Deny: While this is not a fun situation at all, the reality is that if you have been denied Early Action, you are truly not competitive for admission at UGA as compared to the rest of the applicant pool. It is not easy to write that, and it is very difficult to tell this to a student or parent, but when we look at this students application in comparison with the other 11, 400 EA applicants (and remember, we expect to get over 9,000 RD applicants as well), they do not match up academically with the others. It is better to tell you now instead of waiting until late March, as this gives you time to make other plans. Unless there seems to be a serious error (you are in the top of your class, take a very challenging course load, and have a strong test score), my suggestion is to not contact us about the decision, but instead move forward with plan B. While we do not mind talking with you at all, the reality is that an Early Action denial means that the admission to UGA is not possible as a freshman. Incomplete: For the small number of students who did not complete your EA file, you are now automatically deferred to the next step, and so you will need to get in the missing materials from EA, and also submit part II of the application and a teacher recommendation. We went three plus weeks beyond the deadline allowing you to get in the missing documents, sending reminder emails, indicating what was missing through the myStatus page, and it was your responsibility to get in the required materials. So I do not suggest contacting us to see if we can take items late, as that time has passed. Focus instead on sending in what is needed to be reviewed in the next round. When completing part II (the essays), you do NOT need to do an entirely new application, and there is no new/additional application fee. You just need to go to your myStatus page after decisions are out, complete part II (the essays), and hit submit. Go Dawgs!
Friday, May 22, 2020
The Elusive Zodiac Killer Serial killers almost without exception enjoy playing games. Whether played with their victimsÃ¢â¬â¢, or the police forces trying to track them down, the game of the kill is almost as essential as the murder itself. In most instances this need to draw out the experience leads to the downfall of the culprit. This was not the case with the elusive Zodiac Killer of the San Francisco Bay Area. ZodiacÃ¢â¬â¢s career, which would become the most cerebral murder case of all time, began in Riverside California on the night of October 30, 1966. The first victim, Cheri Jo Bates, a young student at the university was brutally murdered outside the college library. She was stabbed 42 times with a knife with a smallÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In mid-April 1967, a janitor at the RCC Library discovered a poem about the murder inscribed on a table at which Ms. Bates was studying at prior to the incident. Technology in the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s was insufficient to collect DNA samples from suspects, however, in 1998 Riverside Police collected skin samples from their only remaining suspect in the case. The results of these tests have not been released to the public. Almost two years passed after the Bates murder, when in December of 1968 the Zodiac struck again. This time the Zodiac struck in a park at Vallejo, twenty miles north of San Francisco. David Arthur Faraday and Betty Lou Johnson, had told their parents they were going to a Christmas party, when instead going to a secluded loverÃ¢â¬â¢s lane. Several people reported seeing a light colored chevy impala that was raising suspicion by itÃ¢â¬â¢s unnatural behavior. This vehicle pulled up beside David FaradayÃ¢â¬â¢s vehicle. The driver, based on footprints at the scene, walked up behind the car and began firing. Sixteen year old Betty Lou Jensen ran from the car only to have to Zodiac fire five shots into her back using perfect marksmanship. Autopsy results show the shots were fired from approximately ten feet away. Faraday, on the other hand was killed by a single shot to the head. The killer used a handgun loaded with .22 LR ammunition. After the entire incident was over, S tella Borges drove up the lane, passing the Chevy Impala as it drove away, and found theShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Zodiac Killer2094 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Zodiac Killer The late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s were a time of great change in America. The Vietnam War, the civil rights movement and the sexual revolution were just some of the issues on the evening news in American households. For citizens of the San Francisco Bay area, as well as the rest of California, the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s early 70Ã¢â¬â¢represented terror, fear and death. Ã¢â¬Å"The bizarre and theatrical and still unresolved serial murders by real-life ghoul who called himself Zodiac, who claimed inRead MoreEssay on The Zodiac Killer2341 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Zodiac Killer Works Cited Not Included In the late sixties and early seventies, California was haunted by dozens of unsolved murders. The offender remains unknown to this day. The murderer, who referred to himself as the Zodiac, made contact with the police and area newspapers throughout his reign of terror through a series of menacing notes. Although the police were never able to apprehend Zodiac, they were able to gather information about him via the letters. Zodiac boasted of killingRead MoreEssay On The Zodiac Killer3047 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesLaw enforcement officers meet in San Francisco in 1969 to compare notes on the Zodiac Killer, who is believed to have killed five people in 1968 and 1969. The killer gained notoriety by writing several letters to police boasting of the slayings. He claimed to have killed as many as 37 people and has never been caught..Zodiac kill up to 45 people and more that they dont know about because he kill people in a different way in the different town that he was in but he word the sam e thing every timeRead MoreEducation Is The Most Important Aspect Of Life2012 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesenough. Game was not an easy contest to behold, in fact, it was quite a bloody lesson to be taught. Even so, it was full of parental wisdom and was a great example of the influence parents can have on their children. Billy Dent, notorious serial killer, continues his attempt to educate his son Jasper (Jazz) on the art of killing. He tries to teach Jazz that people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t real, that when they saw him, Ã¢â¬Å"they saw something that looked like them. Something that looked human and mortal. Something thatRead MoreThe Style Of David Fincher s Se7en1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesshort tempered individual who arrives on conclusion in haste. Paired together, the two detectives are tasked to solve a murder mystery, where the killer depicted signs of psychosis and killed his victim based on the seven deadly sins; Gluttony, Greed, Sloth, Lust, Wrath, Envy and Pride. The killer, named as John Doe (played by Kevin Spacey), proves to be elusive as the two detectives constantly try to piece the clues t ogether to get a lead on the murderer. A second minor storyline also develops withinRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesleaders. For this reason, stock market valuations place as much importance on the RD Ã¢â¬ËpipelineÃ¢â¬â¢ (that is, the products in development) as on the currently marketed products. The holy grail of pharmaceutical RD used to be the Ã¢â¬ËblockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢. Like Ã¢â¬Ëkiller applicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the software market, blockbuster drugs are genuine advances that achieve rapid, deep market penetration. Because of their superlative market performance, blockbusters determined the fortunes of individual companies. Glaxo went from
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Finding the Best Multi State Essay Topics The Basics of Multi State Essay Topics Remember your final grade significantly is contingent on the topic. It's important to select debatable argumentative essay topics as you need opposing points which you can counter to your own points. Still, figuring out the very best topic for your essay isn't your only concern for a student. There are several persuasive essay topics to pick from to finish your high school or college assignment. It's therefore important to cautiously consider different college essay topics. If you're looking for college essay examples, here's a great one below. The college essay is among the main facets of your college application. Informative essays are somewhat more descriptive. The New Angle On Multi State Essay Topics Just Released In case you have any questions, please don't hesitate to speak to us at your convenience. You'll get exposed to the types of issues the Examiners like to test in addition to how they have a tendency to be tested. If you are searching for a breakdown of the highly-tested topics on the MEE, have a look at our MEE one-sheets. Bear in mind that even when you believe you know the law, it's possible they have changed it for the intention behind the MPT. The Advantages of Multi State Essay Topics Otherwise, you must look at a number of the easy compare and contrast essay topics on the many scientific innovations. Since you may see, there's a plethora of diffe rent argumentative paper titles you're able to utilize. Each style differs in two ways. If you're handwriting your essay response is restricted to the front and back of a single sheet of lined paper. 1 important thing you ought to do when writing your essay is to help it become personal. You should understand completely that you're not writing a descriptive essay. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. Whatever college essay topic you select or are assigned, the secret is to compose a superior stand-out essay. There are instances when you're assigned with the topic but more frequently, you'll need to create a topic on your own. Look at the world today, search via the internet and appear at news articles too there's inspiration everywhere. The excellent news about the UBE's subject essays is they almost always provide you with the headers they would like you to use. Another good idea is to receive some absolutely free essay examples of different kinds and on various subjects to find a general idea of the way in which a thriving debatable paper looks. Make the usage of the suggested research paper topic ideas and you'll be prosperous. You will shortly receive more information about your State Bar license and the way to update your contact details. A special title will capture the interest of the reader and enhance your odds of obtaining a high score. Since you can see, a lot of the topics listed are new and deal with the recent issues happening in the World today. While you're just beginning to compose essays, you shouldn't struggle attempting to think of something to discuss. At the exact same time, it's a fantastic persuasive essay idea. Each essay question is intended to be answered in 1 hour and the PT was made to be completed in 90 minutes. Select a distinctive topic that others may not think of, and whatever you select, make certain you know a lot about it! Normally, having three leading arguments to show your point is sufficient for a convincing paper. Like the remainder of the bar exam, you will have to practice a good deal. The very best thing is to choose a topic that will provide you with an opportunity to present new ideas or a fresh perspective on a problem. The very first things which you will need to write back on your exam answer are the headers to every portion of the question.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
September 26 Dear Diary, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry itÃ¢â¬â¢s been so long, and I canÃ¢â¬â¢t really explain why I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t written-except that there are so many things I feel frightened to talk about, even to you. First, the most terrible thing happened. The day that Bonnie and Meredith and I were at the cemetery, an old man was attacked there, and almost killed. We will write a custom essay sample on The Vampire Diaries: The Awakening Chapter Six or any similar topic only for you Order Now The police still havenÃ¢â¬â¢t found the person who did it. People think the old man was crazy, because when he woke up he started raving about Ã¢â¬Å"eyes in the darkÃ¢â¬ and oak trees and things. But I remember what happened t us that night, and I wonder. It scares me. Everyone was scared for a while, and all the kids had to stay inside after dark or go out in groups. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s been about three weeks now, and no more attacks, so the excitement is dying down. Aunt Judith says it must have been another vagrant that did it. Tyler SmallwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s father even suggested that the old man might have done it to himself-though I would like to see somebody bite himself in the throat. But mostly what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been busy with is Plan B. As far as it goes, itÃ¢â¬â¢s been going well. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten severalletters and a bouquet of red roses from Ã¢â¬Å"Jean-ClaudeÃ¢â¬ (MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle is a florist), and everybody seems to have forgotten that I was ever interested in Stefan. So my social positionÃ¢â¬â¢s secure. Even Caroline hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been making any trouble. In fact, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what Caroline is doing these days, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care. I never see her at lunch or after school anymore; she seems to have drawn away from her old crowd completely. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s only one thing I docare about right now. Stefan. Even Bonnie and Meredith donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize how important he is to me. IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid to tell them; IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll think IÃ¢â¬â¢m crazy. At school I wear a mask of calm and control, but on the inside- well, every day it just gets worse. Aunt Judith has started to worry about me. She says I donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat enough these days, and sheÃ¢â¬â¢s right. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to concentrate on my classes, or even on anything fun like the Haunted House fund-raiser. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t concentrate on anything but him. And I donÃ¢â¬â¢t even understand why. He hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t spoken to me since that horrible afternoon. But IÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you something strange. Last week in history class, I glanced up and caught him looking at me. We were sitting a few seats apart, and he was turned completely sideways in his desk, just looking.For a moment I felt almost frightened, and my heart started pounding, and we just stared at each other -and then he looked away. But since then itÃ¢â¬â¢s happened twice more, and each time I felt his eyes on me before I saw them. This is the literal truth. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s not my imagination. He isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like any boy IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever known. He seems so isolated, so lonely. Even though itÃ¢â¬â¢s his own choice. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s made quite a hit on the football team, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hang around with any of the guys, except maybe Matt. MattÃ¢â¬â¢s the only one he talks to. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hang around with any girls, either, thatIcan see, so maybe the narc rumor is doing some good. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s more like heÃ¢â¬â¢s avoiding other people than theyÃ¢â¬â¢re avoiding him. He disappears in between classes and after football practice, and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never once seen him in the cafeteria. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s never invited anybody to his room at the boarding house. He never visits the coffee shop after school . So how can I ever get him someplace where he canÃ¢â¬â¢t run from me? This is the real problem with Plan B. Bonnie says, Ã¢â¬Å"Why not get stuck in a thunderstorm with him, so you have to huddle together to conserve body warmth?Ã¢â¬ And Meredith suggested that my car could break down in front of the boarding house. But neither of those ideas is practical,and IÃ¢â¬â¢m going insane trying to come up with something better . Every day itÃ¢â¬â¢s getting worse for me. I feel as if I were a clock or something, winding up tighter and tighter. If I donÃ¢â¬â¢t find something to do soon, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll- I was going to say Ã¢â¬Å"die.Ã¢â¬ The solution came to her quite suddenly and simply. She felt sorry about Matt; she knew heÃ¢â¬â¢d been hurt by the Jean-Claude rumor. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d hardly spoken to her since the story had broken, usually passing her with a quick nod. And when she ran into him one day in an empty hall outside of Creative Writing, he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Matt-Ã¢â¬ she began. She wanted to tell him that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t true, that she would never have started seeing another boy without telling him first. She wanted to tell him that sheÃ¢â¬â¢d never meant to hurt him, and that she felt terrible now. But she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to begin. Finally, she just blurted out, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry!Ã¢â¬ and turned to go in to class. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena,Ã¢â¬ he said, and she turned back. He was looking at her now, at least, his eyes lingering on her lips, her hair. Then he shook his head as if to say the joke was on him. Ã¢â¬Å"Is this French guy for real?Ã¢â¬ he finally demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ said Elena immediately and without hesitation. Ã¢â¬Å"I made him up,Ã¢â¬ she added simply, Ã¢â¬Å"to show everybody I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t upset about-Ã¢â¬ She broke off. Ã¢â¬Å"About Stefan. I get it.Ã¢â¬ Matt nodded, looking both grimmer and somewhat more understanding. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, Elena, thatwas pretty lousy of him. But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think he meant it personally. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s that way with everybody-Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Except you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. He talks to me, sometimes, but not about anything personal. He never says anything about his family or what he does outside of school. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like-like thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a wall around him that I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get through. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think heÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever let anybody get through that wall. Which is a damn shame, because I think that behind it heÃ¢â¬â¢s miserable.Ã¢â¬ Elena pondered this, fascinated by a view of Stefan sheÃ¢â¬â¢d never considered before. He always seemed so controlled, so calm and undisturbed. But then, she knew she seemed that way herself to other people. Was it possible that underneath he was as confused and unhappy as she was? It was then that the idea came, and it was ridiculously simple. No complicated schemes, no thunderstorms or cars breaking down. Ã¢â¬Å"Matt,Ã¢â¬ she said, slowly, Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t you think it would be a good thing if somebody did get behind that wall? A good thing for Stefan, I mean? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you think that would be the best thing that could happen to him?Ã¢â¬ She looked up at him intensely, willing him to understand. He stared at her a moment, then shut his eyes briefly and shook his head in disbelief. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"you are incredible. You twist people around your little finger, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think you even know youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing it. And now youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to ask me to do something to help you ambush Stefan, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m such a dumb sucker I might even agree to do it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not dumb, youÃ¢â¬â¢re a gentleman. And Ido want to ask you a favor, .but only if you think itÃ¢â¬â¢s right. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hurt Stefan, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hurt you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. I know how that must sound, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s true. I only want-Ã¢â¬ She broke off again. How could she explain what she wanted when she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even understand it herself? Ã¢â¬Å"You only want everybody and everything revolving around Elena Gilbert,Ã¢â¬ he said bitterly. Ã¢â¬Å"You only want everything you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have.Ã¢â¬ Shocked, she stepped back and looked at him. Her throat swelled, and warmth gathered in her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena, donÃ¢â¬â¢t look like that. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry.Ã¢â¬ He sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"All right, what is it IÃ¢â¬â¢m supposed to do? Hog-tie him and dump him on your doorstep?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ said Elena, still trying to make the tears go back where they belonged. Ã¢â¬Å"I only wanted you to get him to come to the Homecoming Dance next week.Ã¢â¬ MartÃ¢â¬â¢s expression was odd. Ã¢â¬Å"You just want him to be at the dance.Ã¢â¬ Elena nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"All right. IÃ¢â¬â¢m pretty sure heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be there. And, ElenaÃ¢â¬ ¦ there really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t anybody but you I want to take.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"All right,Ã¢â¬ said Elena after a moment. Ã¢â¬Å"And, well, thank you.Ã¢â¬ MattÃ¢â¬â¢s expression was still peculiar. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t thank me, Elena. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦ really.Ã¢â¬ She was puzzling over that when he turned away and walked down the hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Hold still,Ã¢â¬ said Meredith, giving ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s hair a reproving twitch. Ã¢â¬Å"I still think,Ã¢â¬ said Bonnie from the window seat, Ã¢â¬Å"that they were both wonderful.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who?Ã¢â¬ Elena murmured absently. Ã¢â¬Å"As if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know,Ã¢â¬ said Bonnie. Ã¢â¬Å"Those two guys of yours who pulled off the last-minute miracle at the game yesterday. When Stefan caught that last pass, I thought I was going to faint. Or throw up.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,please ,Ã¢â¬ said Meredith. Ã¢â¬Å"And Matt-that boy is simply poetry in motionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And neither of them is mine,Ã¢â¬ Elena said flatly. Under MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s expert fingers, her hair was becoming a work of art, a soft mass of twisted gold. And the dress was all right; the iced-violet color brought out the violet in her eyes. But even to herself she looked pale and steely, not softly flushed with excitement but white and determined, like a very young soldier being sent to the front lines. Standing on the football field yesterday when her name was announced as Homecoming Queen, there had been only one thought in her mind. HecouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t refuse to dance with her. If he came to the dance at all, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t refuse the Homecoming Queen. And standing in front of the mirror now, she said it to herself again. Ã¢â¬Å"Tonight anyone you want will be yours,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie was saying soothingly. Ã¢â¬Å"And, listen, when you get rid of Matt, can I take him off and comfort him?Ã¢â¬ Meredith snorted. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Raymond going to think?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,you can comforthim . But, really, Elena, I like Matt. And once you home in on Stefan, your threesome is going to get a little crowded. SoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, do whatever you want. Matt deserves some consideration.Ã¢â¬ HeÃ¢â¬â¢s certainly not getting it from me, Elena thought. She still couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly believe what she was doing to him. But just now she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to second-guess herself; she needed all her strength and concentration. Ã¢â¬Å"There.Ã¢â¬ Meredith put the last pin in ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Now look at us, the Homecoming Queen and her court-or part of it, anyway. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re beautiful.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is that the royal Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢?Ã¢â¬ Elena said mockingly, but it was true. They were beautiful. MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s dress was a pure sweep of burgundy satin, gathered tight at the waist and pouring into folds from the hips. Her dark hair hung loose down her back. And Bonnie, as she stood up and joined the others in front of the mirror, was like a shimmering party favor in pink taffeta and black sequins. As for herselfÃ¢â¬ ¦ Elena scanned her image with an experienced eye and thought again, The dress is all right. The only other phrase that came to mind wascrystallized violets . Her grandmother had kept a little jar of them, real flowers dipped in crystallized sugar and frozen. They went downstairs together, as they had for every dance since the seventh grade-except that before, Caroline had always been with them. Elena realized with faint surprise that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know who Caroline was going with tonight. Aunt Judith and Robert-soon to be Uncle Robert-were in the living room, along with Margaret in her pajamas. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, you girls all look lovely,Ã¢â¬ said Aunt Judith, as fluttery and excited as if she were going to the dance herself. She kissed Elena, and Margaret held up her arms for a hug. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re pretty,Ã¢â¬ she said with four-year-old simplicity. Robert was looking at Elena, too. He blinked, opened his mouth, and closed it again. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter, Bob?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"On.Ã¢â¬ He looked at Aunt Judith, seeming embarrassed. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, actually, it just occurred to me that Elena is a form of the name Helen. And for some reason I was thinking of Helen of Troy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Beautiful and doomed,Ã¢â¬ said Bonnie happily. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, yes,Ã¢â¬ said Robert, not looking happy at all. Elena said nothing. The doorbell rang. Matt was on the step, in his familiar blue sports coat. With him were Ed Goff, MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s date, and Raymond Hernandez, BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s. Elena looked for Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s probably already there,Ã¢â¬ said Matt, interpreting her glance. Ã¢â¬Å"Listen, Elena-Ã¢â¬ But whatever he had been about to say was cut off in the chatter from the other couples. Bonnie and Raymond went with them in MattÃ¢â¬â¢s car, and kept up a constant stream of witticisms all the way to the school. Music drifted out the open doors of the auditorium. As Elena stepped out of the car, a curious certainty rushed over her. Something was going to happen, she realized, looking at the square bulk of the school building. The peaceful low gear of the last few weeks was about to slip into high. IÃ¢â¬â¢m ready, she thought. And hoped it was true. Inside, it was a kaleidoscope of color and activity. She and Matt were mobbed the instant they came in, and compliments rained down on both of them. ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s dressÃ¢â¬ ¦ her hairÃ¢â¬ ¦ her flowers. Matt was a legend in the making: another Joe Montana, a sure bet for an athletic scholarship. In the dizzying whirl that should have been life and breath to her, Elena kept searching for one dark head. Tyler Smallwood was breathing heavily on her, smelling of punch and Brut and Doublemint gum. His date was looking murderous. Elena ignored him in the hopes that he would go away. Mr. Tanner passed by with a soggy paper cup, looking as if his collar was strangling him. Sue Carson, the other senior homecoming princess, breezed up and cooed over the violet dress. Bonnie was already out on the dance floor, shimmering under the lights. But nowhere did Elena see Stefan. One more whiff of Doublemint and she was going to be sick. She nudged Matt and they escaped to the refreshment table, where Coach Lyman launched into a critique of the game. Couples and groups came up to them, spending a few minutes and then retreating to make room for the next in line. Just as if we reallywere royalty, thought Elena wildly. She glanced sideways to see if Matt shared her amusement, but he was looking fixedly off to his left. She followed his gaze. And there, half concealed behind a cluster of football players, was the dark head sheÃ¢â¬â¢d been looking for. Unmistakable, even in this dim light. A thrill went through her, more of pain than anything else. Ã¢â¬Å"Now what?Ã¢â¬ said Matt, his jaw set. Ã¢â¬Å"The hog-tying?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to ask him to dance, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll wait until weÃ¢â¬â¢ve danced first, if you want.Ã¢â¬ He shook his head, and she set out toward Stefan through the crowd. Piece by piece, Elena registered information about him as she approached. His black blazer was of a subtly different cut than the other boysÃ¢â¬â¢, more elegant, and he wore a white cashmere sweater under it. He stood quite still, not fidgeting, a little apart from the groups around him. And, although she could see him only in profile, she could see he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t wearing his glasses. He took them off for football, of course, but sheÃ¢â¬â¢d never seen him close up without them. It made her feel giddy and excited, as if this were a masquerade and the unmasking time had come. She focused on his shoulder, the line of his jaw, and then he was turning toward her. In that instant, Elena was aware that she was beautiful. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just the dress, or the way her hair was done. She was beautiful in herself: slender, imperial, a thing made of silk and inner fire. She saw his lips part slightly, reflexively, and then she looked up into his eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello.Ã¢â¬ Was that her own voice, so quiet and self-assured? His eyes were green. Green as oak leaves in summer. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you having a good time?Ã¢â¬ she said. I am now . He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say it, but she knew it was what he was thinking; she could see it in the way he stared at her. She had never been so sure of her power. Except that actually he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look as if he were having a good time; he looked stricken, in pain, as if he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take one more minute of this. The band was starting up, a slow dance. He was still staring at her, drinking her in. Those green eyes darkening, going black with desire. She had the sudden feeling that he might jerk her to him and kiss her hard, without ever saying a word. Ã¢â¬Å"Would you like to dance?Ã¢â¬ she said softly. IÃ¢â¬â¢m playing with fire, with something I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand, she thought suddenly. And in that instant she realized that she was frightened. Her heart began to pound violently. It was as if those green eyes spoke to some part of her that was buried deep beneath the surface-and that part was screaming Ã¢â¬Å"dangerÃ¢â¬ at her. Some instinct older than civilization was telling her to run, to flee. She never moved. The same force that was terrifying her was holding her there. This is out of control, she thought suddenly. Whatever was happening here was beyond her understanding, was nothing normal or sane. But there was no stopping it now, and even while frightened she was reveling in it. It was the most intense moment sheÃ¢â¬â¢d ever experienced with a boy, but nothing at all was happening. He was just gazing at her, as if hypnotized, and she was gazing back, while the energy shimmered between them like heat lightning. She saw his eyes go darker, defeated, and felt the wild leap of her own heart as he slowly stretched out one hand. And then it all shattered. Ã¢â¬Å"Why, Elena, how sweet you look,Ã¢â¬ said a voice, and ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s vision was dazzled with gold. It was Caroline, her auburn hair rich and glossy, her skin tanned to a perfect bronze. She was wearing a dress of pure gold lame that showed an incredibly daring amount of that perfect skin. She slipped one bare arm through StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s and smiled lazily up at him. They were stunning together, like a couple of international models slumming at a high school dance, far more glamorous and sophisticated than anyone else in the room. Ã¢â¬Å"And that little dress is so pretty ,Ã¢â¬ continued Caroline, while ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s mind kept on running on automatic. That casually possessive arm linked with StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s told her everything: where Caroline had been at lunch these past weeks, what she had been up to all this time. Ã¢â¬Å"I told Stefan we simply had to stop by for a moment, but weÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to stay long. So you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind if I keep him to myself for the dances, do you?Ã¢â¬ Elena was strangely calm now, her mind a humming blank. She said no, of course she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind, and watched Caroline move away, a symphony in auburn and gold. Stefan went with her. There was a circle of faces around Elena; she turned from them and came up against Matt. Ã¢â¬Å"You knew he was coming with her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I knew she wanted him to. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s been following him around at lunchtime and after school, and kind of forcing herself on him. ButÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I see.Ã¢â¬ Still held in that queer, artificial calm, she scanned the crowd and saw Bonnie coming toward her, and Meredith leaving her table. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d seen, then. Probably everyone had. Without a word to Matt, she moved toward them, heading instinctively for the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ rest room. It was packed with bodies, and Meredith and Bonnie kept their remarks bright and casual while looking at her with concern. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you see that dress?Ã¢â¬ said Bonnie, squeezing ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s fingers secretly. Ã¢â¬Å"The front must be held on with superglue. And whatÃ¢â¬â¢s she going to wear to the next dance? Cellophane?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Handiwrap,Ã¢â¬ said Meredith. She added in a low voice, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you okay?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Elena could see in the mirror that her eyes were too bright and that there was one spot of color burning on each cheek. She smoothed her hair and turned away. The room emptied, leaving them in privacy. Bonnie was fiddling nervously with the sequined bow at her waist now. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t such a bad thing after all,Ã¢â¬ she said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t thought about anything else but him in weeks. Nearly a month. And so maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s just for the best, and you can move on to other things now, instead ofÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, chasing him.Ã¢â¬ Et tu, Brute? thought Elena. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you so much for your support,Ã¢â¬ she said aloud. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, Elena, donÃ¢â¬â¢t be like that,Ã¢â¬ Meredith put in. Ã¢â¬Å"She isnÃ¢â¬â¢t trying to hurt you, she just thinks-Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And I suppose you think so, too? Well, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s fine. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just go out and find myself some other things to move on to. Like some other best friends.Ã¢â¬ She left them both staring after her. Outside, she threw herself into the whirl of color and music. She was brighter than she had ever been at any dance before. She danced with everyone, laughing too loudly, flirting with every boy in her path. They were calling her to come up and be crowned. She stood on the stage, looking down on the butterfly-bright figures below. Someone gave her flowers; someone put a rhinestone tiara on her head. There was clapping. It all passed as if in a dream. She flirted with Tyler because he was closest when she came off the stage. Then she remembered what he and Dick had done to Stefan, and she broke off one of the roses from her bouquet and gave it to him. Matt was looking on from the sidelines, his mouth tight. TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s forgotten date was almost in tears. She could smell alcohol along with the mint on TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s breath now, and his face was red. His friends were around her, a shouting, laughing crowd, and she saw Dick pour something from a brown paper bag into his glass of punch. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d never been with this group before. They welcomed her, admiring her, the boys vying for her attention. Jokes flew back and forth, and Elena laughed even when they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s arm circled her waist, and she just laughed harder. Out of the corner of her eye she saw Matt shake his head and walk away. The girls were getting shrill, the boys rowdy. Tyler was nuzzling moistly at her neck. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got an idea,Ã¢â¬ he announced to the group, hugging Elena more tightly to him. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go someplace more fun.Ã¢â¬ Somebody shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Like where, Tyler? Your dadÃ¢â¬â¢s house?Ã¢â¬ Tyler was grinning, a big, boozy, reckless grin. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I mean someplace where we can leave our mark. Like the cemetery.Ã¢â¬ The girls squealed. The boys elbowed each other and faked punches. TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s date was still standing outside the circle. Ã¢â¬Å"Tyler, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy,Ã¢â¬ she said, her voice high and thin. Ã¢â¬Å"You know what happened to that old man. I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Great, then, you stay here.Ã¢â¬ Tyler fished keys out of his pocket and waved them at the rest of the crowd. Ã¢â¬Å"WhoisnÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid?Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, IÃ¢â¬â¢m up for it,Ã¢â¬ said Dick, and there was a chorus of approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Me, too,Ã¢â¬ said Elena, clear and defiant. She smiled up at Tyler, and he practically swung her off her feet. And then she and Tyler were leading a noisy, roughhousing group out into the parking lot, where they were all piling into cars. And then Tyler was putting the top of his convertible down and she was climbing in, with Dick and a girl named Vickie Bennett squashing into the back seat. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena!Ã¢â¬ somebody shouted, far away, from the lighted doorway at the school. Ã¢â¬Å"Drive,Ã¢â¬ she said to Tyler, taking off her tiara, and the engine growled to life. They burned rubber out of the parking lot, and the cool night wind blew into ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s face. How to cite The Vampire Diaries: The Awakening Chapter Six, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The Vikings The Vikings liked clothes and jewelry. The Vikings were proud of their appearance and liked to dress well. Most of their clothes were made of wool or linen that they had spun and woven themselves. The cloth was dyed with mineral or vegetable dyes of green, brown, red, yellow or blue. The men wore sleeved jerkins or three-quarter length coats over woolen shirts and long cloth trousers. On their feet they wore tall leather boots or soft shoes with short socks. The women wore long woolen dresses and linen petticoats which reached to their ankles. Their legs and feet were covered with thick woolly socks and soft leather shoes. Both men and women wore fur or woolen hats and cloaks when they went out in cold weather. Cloaks were fastened at the shoulder with brooches. Children probably wore the same kind of clothes as their parents. Everyone liked to wear gold and silver brooches, bracelets, necklaces, armbands and rings. Some of their jewelry was part of the loot from raids on foreign churches and monasteries. The Vikings and there war gear. The Viking was not a soldier in the modern sense. He spent as much time being a farmer, sailor, trader and explorer as he did fighting; and he had to provide his own equipment. Armor to protect the body took many hours of skilled work to make. It was certainly expensive, and was probably worn only by Viking leases and their picked household warriors. The other fighting men would have worn their everyday clothes, relying on an iron helmet and a sturdy wooden shield for protection. The sword was the most admired and honored weapon, and many Vikings would have carried one. The other weapon which became almost the trademark of the Norseman, was the heavy, two-handed battle-axe. This fearsome weapon, swung by a big, muscular man, could shear through any armor. Some warriors are said to have been able to behead a horse at a blow. Men who could afford neither sword nor axe used a thrusting spear. The northern people of Europe, the Barbarians, wore warm tunics and cloaks. They lived in colder, wetter conditions than did the people of the Mediterranean world. They needed to wear layers of warm and relatively close-fitted clothes. Celtic, Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Viking men wore woolen trousers of various styles. Sometimes these were long and loose, or they were strapped onto the lower leg by bandages of linen or by leather thongs. A typical Barbarian wardrobe consisted of undertunic , shirts, trousers, overtunic, and cloak. Cloaks, tunics, gowns, nightgowns, boots, and mittens were often fur lined or edged with fur. The women did not wear trousers, but under their long tunics they sometimes wore leg coverings that were made of wool or linen. When it came to decorative details, individual cultures had distinctive styles. The Celts liked abstract patterns, while the Anglo-Saxons were especially fond of animal designs. In conclusion, the Vikings were very proud of their appearance. They wore beautiful clothes and jewelry and took great care in making their clothes and war gear. The Barbarians, on the other hand, were not as interested in beauty, they were interested in keeping warm because of the cold weather.
Friday, March 20, 2020
What You Should Know About Travel Writing Travel writing is a form of creative nonfiction in which the narrators encounters with foreign places serve as the dominant subject. Also calledÃ travel literature. All travel writing- because it is writing- is made in the sense of being constructed, says Peter Hulme, but travel writing cannot be made up without losing its designation (quoted byÃ Tim Youngs inÃ The Cambridge Introduction to Travel Writing, 2013). Notable contemporary travel writers in English includeÃ Paul Theroux, Susan Orlean, Bill Bryson,Ã Pico Iyer,Ã Rory MacLean,Ã Mary Morris, Dennison Berwick,Ã Jan Morris, Tony Horwitz,Ã Jeffrey Tayler, and Tom Miller, among countless others. Examples of Travel Writing By the Railway Side by Alice MeynellLists and Anaphora in Bill Brysons Neither Here Nor ThereLists in William Least Heat-Moons Place DescriptionLondon From a Distance by Ford Madox FordNiagara Falls by Rupert BrookeNights in London by Thomas BurkeOf Trave, by Francis BaconOf Travel by Owen FellthamRochester by Nathaniel Hawthorne Examples and Observations The best writers in the field [of travel writing] bring to it an indefatigable curiosity, a fierce intelligence that enables them to interpret, and a generous heart that allows them to connect. Without resorting to invention, they make ample use of their imaginations. . . .The travel book itself has a similar grab bag quality. It incorporates the characters and plot line of a novel, the descriptive power of poetry, the substance of a history lesson, the discursiveness of an essay, and the- often inadvertent- self-revelation of a memoir. It revels in the particular while occasionally illuminating the universal. It colors and shapes and fills in gaps. Because it results from displacement, it is frequently funny. It takes readers for a spin (and shows them, usually, how lucky they are). It humanizes the alien. More often than not it celebrates the unsung. It uncovers truths that are stranger than fiction. It gives eyewitness proof of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s infinite possibilities.(Thomas Swick, N ot a Tourist. The Wilson Quarterly, Winter 2010) Narrators and NarrativesThere exists at the center of travel books like [Graham] Greenes Journey Without Maps or [V.S.] Naipauls An Area of Darkness a mediating consciousness that monitors the journey, judges, thinks, confesses, changes, and even grows. This narrator, so central to what we have come to expect in modern travel writing, is a relatively new ingredient in travel literature, but it is one that irrevocably changed the genre. . . .Freed from strictly chronological, fact-driven narratives, nearly all contemporary travel writers include their own dreams and memories of childhood as well as chunks of historical data and synopses of other travel books. Self reflexivity and instability, both as theme and style, offer the writer a way to show the effects of his or her own presence in a foreign country and to expose the arbitrariness of truth and the absence of norms.(Casey Blanton, Travel Writing: The Self and the World. Routledge, 2002)V.S. Naipaul on Making InquiriesMy books ha ve to be called travel writing, but that can be misleading because in the old days travel writing was essentially done by men describing the routes they were taking. . . . What I do is quite different. I travel on a theme. I travel to make an inquiry. I am not a journalist. I am taking with me the gifts of sympathy, observation, and curiosity that I developed as an imaginative writer. The books I write now, these inquiries, are really constructed narratives.(V.S. Naipaul, interview with Ahmed Rashid, Death of the Novel. The Observer, Feb. 25, 1996) Paul Theroux on the Travelers Mood- Most travel narratives- perhaps all of them, the classics anyway- describe the miseries and splendors of going from one remote place to another. The quest, the getting there, the difficulty of the road is the story; the journey, not the arrival, matters, and most of the time the traveler- the travelerÃ¢â¬â¢s mood, especially- is the subject of the whole business. I have made a career out of this sort of slogging and self-portraiture, travel writing as diffused autobiography; and so have many others in the old, laborious look-at-me way that informs travel writing.(Paul Theroux, The Soul of the South. Smithsonian Magazine, July-August 2014)-Ã Most visitors to coastal Maine know it in the summer. In the nature of visitation, people show up in the season. The snow and ice are a bleak memory now on the long warm days of early summer, but it seems to me that to understand a place best, the visitor needs to see figures in a landscape in all seasons. M aine is a joy in the summer. But the soul of Maine is more apparent in the winter. You see that the population is actually quite small, the roads are empty, some of the restaurants are closed, the houses of the summer people are dark, their driveways unplowed. But Maine out of season is unmistakably a great destination: hospitable, good-humored, plenty of elbow room, short days, dark nights of crackling ice crystals.Winter is a season of recovery and preparation. Boats are repaired, traps fixed, nets mended. Ã¢â¬Å"I need the winter to rest my body,Ã¢â¬ my friend the lobsterman told me, speaking of how he suspended his lobstering in December and did not resume until April. . . .(Paul Theroux, The Wicked Coast. The Atlantic, June 2011) Susan Orlean on the Journey- To be honest, I view all stories as journeys. Journeys are the essential text of the human experience- the journey from birth to death, from innocence to wisdom, from ignorance to knowledge, from where we start to where we end. There is almost no piece of important writing- the Bible, the Odyssey, Chaucer, Ulysses- that isnt explicitly or implicitly the story of a journey. Even when I dont actually go anywhere for a particular story, the way I report is to immerse myself in something I usually know very little about, and what I experience is the journey toward a grasp of what Ive seen.(Susan Orlean, Introduction to My Kind of Place: Travel Stories from a Woman Whos Been Everywhere. Random House, 2004)- When I went to Scotland for a friends wedding last summer, I didnt plan on firing a gun. Getting into a fistfight, maybe; hurling insults about badly dressed bridesmaids, of course; but I didnt expect to shoot or get shot at. The wedding was taking place in a medieval castle in a speck of a village called Biggar. There was not a lot to do in Biggar, but the caretaker of the castle had skeet-shooting gear, and the male guests announced that before the rehearsal dinner they were going to give it a go. The women were advised to knit or shop or something. I dont know if any of us women actually wanted to join them, but we didnt want to be left out, so we insisted on coming along. . . .(Susan Orlean, opening paragraph of Shooting Party. The New Yorker, September 29, 1999) Jonathan Raban on the Open House- As a literary form, travel writing is a notoriously raffish open house where different genres are likely to end up in the bed. It accommodates the private diary, the essay, the short story, the prose poem, the rough note and polished table talk with indiscriminate hospitality. It freely mixes narrative and discursive writing.(Jonathan Raban, For Love Money: Writing - Reading - Travelling 1968-1987. Picador, 1988)- Travel in its purest form requires no certain destination, no fixed itinerary, no advance reservation and no return ticket, for you are trying to launch yourself onto the haphazard drift of things, and put yourself in the way of whatever changes the journey may throw up. Its when you miss the one flight of the week, when the expected friend fails to show, when the pre-booked hotel reveals itself as a collection of steel joists stuck into a ravaged hillside, when a stranger asks you to share the cost of a hired car to a town whose name youv e never heard, that you begin to travel in earnest.(Jonathan Raban, Why Travel? Driving Home: An American Journey. Pantheon, 2011) The Joy of Travel WritingSome travel writers can become serious to the point of lapsing into good ol American puritanism. . . . What nonsense! I have traveled much in Concord. Good travel writing can be as much about having a good time as about eating grubs and chasing drug lords. . . . [T]ravel is for learning, for fun, for escape, for personal quests, for challenge, for exploration, for opening the imagination to other lives and languages.(Frances Mayes, Introduction to The Best American Travel Writing 2002. Houghton, 2002)
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Improving Mobile Access to Government Websites The U.S. federal government is working to improve access to the wealth of information and services available on its more than 11,000 websites from mobile devices like tablets and cellphones, according to an interesting new report from the Government Accountability Office (GAO). While most people still use desktop and laptop computers, consumers are increasingly using mobile devices to access websites with government information and services. As the GAO noted, millions of Americans use mobile devices every day to get information from websites. In addition, mobile users can now do many things on websites that previously required a desktop or laptop computer, like shopping, banking, and accessing government services. For example, the number of individual visitors using cellphones and tablets to access the Department of the Interiors information and services increased significantly from 57,428 visitors in 2011 to 1,206,959 in 2013, according to agency records provided to the GAO. Given this trend, the GAO pointed that the government needs to make its wealth of information and services available Ã¢â¬Å"anytime, anywhere, and on any device.Ã¢â¬ Ã However, as the GAO points out, mobile Internet users face a range of challenges accessing government services online. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, viewing any website that has not been Ã¢â¬Å"optimizedÃ¢â¬ for mobile access- in other words, redesigned for smaller screens- can be challenging,Ã¢â¬ notes the GAO report. Trying to Meet the Mobile Challenge On May 23, 2012, President Obama issued an executive order entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Building a 21st Century Digital Government,Ã¢â¬ directing the federal agencies to deliver better digital services to the American people. Ã¢â¬Å"As a Government, and as a trusted provider of services, we must never forget who our customers are Ã¢â¬â the American people,Ã¢â¬ the President told the agencies. In response to that order, the White HouseÃ¢â¬â¢s Office of Management and Budget created a Digital Government Strategy to be implemented by the Digital Services Advisory Group. The Advisory Group provides the agencies with help and resources needed to improve access to their websites via mobile devices. At the request of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing agent and property manager, the GAO investigated the progress and success of the agencies in meeting the goals of the Digital Government Strategy. What the GAO Found In all, 24 agencies are required to comply with provisions of the Digital Government Strategy, and according to the GAO, all 24 have made efforts to improve their digital services for those who use mobile devices. In its investigation the GAO specifically reviewed six randomly selected agencies: the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Department of Homeland Security, the National Weather Service (NWS) within the Department of Commerce, the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC), and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). The GAO reviewed 5 years (2009 through 2013) of online visitor data as recorded by Google Analytics from each agency. The data included the type of device (smartphone, tablet, or desktop computer) consumers used to access the agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ main website. In addition, the GAO interviewed officials from the six agencies to gather insights about the challenges consumers might face when accessing government services using their mobile devices. The GAO found that five of the six agencies have taken substantive steps to improve access to their websites via mobile devices. For example in 2012, the DOT fully redesigned its main website to provide a separate platform for mobile users. Three of the other agencies GAO interviewed have also redesigned their websites to better accommodate mobile devices and the other two agencies have plans to do so. Of the 6 agencies reviewed by the GAO, only the Federal Maritime Commission had yet to take steps to enhance access to their websites via mobile devices, but plans to enhance access to its website in 2015. Who Uses Mobile Devices? Perhaps the most interesting part of the GAOÃ¢â¬â¢s report is an accounting of who most often use mobile devices to access websites. The GAO cites a Pew Research Center report from 2013 showing that certain groups relied on cellphones to access websites than others. In general, PEW found that people who are young, have more income, have graduate degrees, or are African American have the highest rate of mobile access. In contrast, PEW found that people less likely to use mobile devices to access websites in 2013 included seniors, the less educated, or rural populations. Of course, there are still many rural areas that lack cellphone service, let alone wireless Internet access. Only 22% of people 65 and older used mobile devices to access the Internet, compared to 85% of younger people. Ã¢â¬Å"GAO also found that access to the Internet using cellphones has increased, primarily due to lower cost, convenience, and technical advances,Ã¢â¬ stated the GAO report. Specifically, the Pew survey found that: 74% of African Americans use cellphones to access the Internet.85% of people ages 18 to 29 used cellphones to access the Internet, compared to only 22% of seniors age 65 and older.79% of those using cellphones to access the Internet have incomes of at least $75,000.Only 50% of people living in rural areas use cellphones to access the Internet.74% have college degrees or higher, compared to 53% with a high school diploma and 51% without a high school education. The GAO made no recommendations in relationship to its findings, and issued its report for informational purposes only.